【行業新聞】醫療廢水高污染,我國儀器助力提高廢水回用率
信息來源: 華恒 | [ 2019-04-09 ] 點擊量: 403

   水污染指的是有害化學物質造成水的使用價值降低或者是喪失,并變成污染環境的水。據世界權威機構調查,在發展中國家,各類疾病有80%是因為飲用了不衛生的水而傳播的,每年因飲用不衛生水至少造成全球2000萬人死亡,因此,水污染被稱作“世界頭號殺手”。

 
  Water pollution refers to the use value of water reduced or lost by harmful chemicals and turned into water polluting the environment.According to a survey by world authorities,80%of all kinds of diseases in developing countries are spread by drinking unsanitary water,which causes at least 20 million deaths worldwide every year.Therefore,water pollution is called"the world's number one killer".
 
  水污染主要是由人類活動產生的污染物造成,它包括礦山污染源,工業污染源,農業污染源和生活污染源四大部分。醫院污水雖然在生活污水中所占比例較小,但由于醫院在運行過程中,不可避免地產生了具有直接或者間接感染性、毒性以及其他危害性的廢水,含有病原微生物的醫療污水具有空間污染、急性傳染和潛伏性傳染等特征,如果不經過消毒、滅活等無害化處理,而是直接排入城市下水道,往往會造成水、土壤的污染,嚴重的還會引發各種疾病,導致介水傳染病的暴發流行。
 
  Water pollution is mainly caused by pollutants produced by human activities.It includes four parts:mine pollution source,industrial pollution source,agricultural pollution source and living pollution source.Although the proportion of hospital sewage in domestic sewage is relatively small,it inevitably produces wastewater with direct or indirect infectivity,toxicity and other harmful effects during the operation of the hospital.Medical sewage containing pathogenic microorganisms has the characteristics of space pollution,acute infection and latent infections.If it is not treated harmlessly,such as disinfection and inactivation,it will do so.Directly discharged into urban sewers often results in water and soil pollution,and serious diseases,leading to outbreaks and epidemics of water-borne infectious diseases.
 
  今年3月,北京市水政監察大隊陸續對城六區55家醫療機構開展專項執法行動。調查結果顯示,有25家醫療機構存在排水水質超標的情況,另有4家醫療機構存在無證排水的情況。在水質檢測中發現,此次專項檢查中有醫療機構在糞大腸菌群上超標1400倍。如果食用微生物超標的食品,很容易患痢疾等腸道疾病,可能引起嘔吐、腹瀉等癥狀,危害人體健康安全。
 
  In March this year,the Beijing Water Administration Supervision Brigade launched special law enforcement actions on 55 medical institutions in six districts of the city.The results showed that 25 medical institutions had excessive drainage quality,and 4 medical institutions had undocumented drainage.In the water quality test,it was found that medical institutions exceeded 1400 times the standard in fecal coliform flora during the special inspection.If microorganisms exceed the standard of food,it is easy to suffer from intestinal diseases such as dysentery,which may cause vomiting,diarrhea and other symptoms,endangering human health and safety.
 
  由于污染所導致的缺水和事故不斷發生,不僅使工廠停產、農業減產甚至絕收,還造成了不良的社會影響和較大的經濟損失,嚴重地威脅了社會的可持續發展,威脅了人類的生存。因此,對于含有化學物質、放射性廢水和病原體的醫療廢水,必須經過醫療污水處理設備處理后才能排放,特別是肝炎等傳染病病房排出來的污水,須經消毒后才可排放。
 
  Water shortage and accidents caused by pollution not only stop production of factories,reduce production of agriculture and even stop harvest,but also cause adverse social impact and greater economic losses,which seriously threaten the sustainable development of society and the survival of mankind.Therefore,for medical wastewater containing chemical substances,radioactive wastewater and pathogens,it must be treated by medical sewage treatment equipment before discharging,especially in infectious disease wards such as hepatitis,which can only be discharged after disinfection.
 
  對于綜合醫院(不帶傳染病房)污水處理可采用“預處理→一級強化處理→消毒”的工藝。通過混凝沉淀(過濾)去除攜帶病毒、病菌的顆粒物,調節池前部設置自動格柵,調節池內設提升水泵,污水經提升后進入混凝沉淀池進行混凝沉淀,沉淀池出水進入接觸池進行消毒,達標排放。傳染病醫院(包括帶傳染病房的綜合醫院)和排入自然水體的綜合醫院使用曝氣生物濾池+二氧化氯消毒的污水處理工藝,流程為原污水先經格柵去除漂浮物,再經沉淀池分離泥砂等顆粒物,經調節均勻后泵至BAF進行生物處理,出水經二氧化氯消毒后達標排放,反沖洗出水回流至沉淀池,沉淀分后的污水循環處理。
 
  The process of"pretreatment first-level intensified treatment disinfection"can be used for sewage treatment in general hospitals(without infectious wards).Particulates carrying viruses and pathogens are removed by coagulation sedimentation(filtration),automatic grilles are set at the front of the regulating tank,lifting pumps are set in the regulating tank,sewage is lifted into the coagulation sedimentation tank for coagulation sedimentation,and the effluent of the sedimentation tank is disinfected into the contact tank for discharge up to the standard.Infectious disease hospitals(including general hospitals with infectious wards)and general hospitals discharged into natural waters use biological aerated filter+chlorine dioxide disinfection sewage treatment process.The process is that raw sewage is first removed floating matter by grille,then particulate matter such as mud and sand is separated by sedimentation tank,and then uniformly adjusted and pumped to BAF for biological treatment.After chlorine dioxide disinfection,the effluent is discharged to the standard and backwashed.The effluent is returned to the sedimentation tank,and the sewage after precipitation is recycled.
 
  隨著科學技術的進步,廢水也可以是一種寶貴的資源,要大程度的利用。提高醫療廢水的再生利用率,不僅可以減少污染物排放,還可以節約有限的水資源。在水資源日漸短缺以及環境污染治理日益迫切的情況下,采用先進的技術、工藝和設備將廢水進行處理后再進行排放,增加循環用水次數,提高水資源重復利用率將是廢水回用的發展趨勢。
 
  With the progress of science and technology,wastewater can also be a valuable resource,which should be utilized to a large extent.Improving the recycling efficiency of medical wastewater can not only reduce pollutant discharge,but also save limited water resources.With the increasing shortage of water resources and the increasing urgency of environmental pollution control,the development trend of wastewater reuse will be to use advanced technology,technology and equipment to treat wastewater and discharge it,increase the number of recycled water,and improve the reuse rate of water resources.
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