【行業新聞】科學儀器揭露電子煙健康背后的安全隱患
信息來源: 華恒 | [ 2019-05-07 ] 點擊量: 340

   禁煙范圍從室內延伸到室外、電子煙納入禁煙范圍、違規吸煙不再勸阻而是直接罰款、學校出入口50米內不可銷售煙草制品……四條規定一出,深圳市成為國內又一個嚴格禁煙并且明確表示禁電子煙的城市。而在此之前,香港和杭州也相繼宣布禁止電子煙。

 
  The scope of smoking ban extends from indoor to outdoor,electronic cigarettes are included in the scope of smoking ban,illegal smoking is no longer discouraged but directly fined,and tobacco products can not be sold within 50 meters of school entrance and exit.As a result of the four regulations,Shenzhen has become another city in China which strictly prohibits smoking and expressly prohibits electronic smoking.Before that,Hong Kong and Hangzhou have also announced the ban on electronic cigarettes.
 
  3·15晚會上演“絕望6分鐘”電子煙被拉下健康風口
 
  "Despair 6 Minutes"Electronic Cigarette Pulled Down the Healthy Vent at the 3.15 Party
 
  此次深圳擬出臺的禁煙令,不禁讓人聯想到今年315晚會上電子煙的“絕望6分鐘”。節目指出,電子煙會釋放有害物,危害吸煙者和被動吸煙人群的健康,并且長期吸食電子煙同樣會產生對尼古丁的依賴。同時,有些電子煙的煙液中還含有甲醛、丙二醇、甘油等物質。前不久,美國福克斯新聞就曾曝出,用來戒煙的電子煙可能含有細菌和真菌毒素。世界衛生組織還提出,電子煙產生的二手煙已經成為一種新的環境污染源,向空氣中排放PM1.0、PM2.5等氣溶膠顆粒。
 
  The proposed smoking ban in Shenzhen is reminiscent of the"six minutes of despair"of electronic cigarettes at this year's 315 party.The program points out that electronic cigarettes can release harmful substances,endanger the health of smokers and passive smokers,and long-term smoking of electronic cigarettes can also lead to nicotine dependence.At the same time,some electronic cigarette smoke also contains formaldehyde,propylene glycol,glycerol and other substances.Not long ago,Fox News reported that electronic cigarettes used to quit smoking may contain bacteria and mycotoxins.The World Health Organization also proposed that the second-hand smoke generated by electronic smoke has become a new source of environmental pollution,which emits PM1.0,PM2.5 aerosol particles into the air.
 
  這一波“點名”直接揭下了各大商家為電子煙貼上的“健康”標簽,也將這一新行業結結實實拉下了風口。事實上,即便沒有這些主流媒體和組織的“點名”,本身就處于亂象之中的電子煙行業也會迎來一波整改。目前市面上的電子煙產品價格從十幾元到上千元不等,沒有任何購買限制,即便是青少年也可以輕易獲得。然而,對于這個沒有明確規范的新型產品,消費者很難分辨真假好壞,無從得知制造商究竟在里面加了什么,是否存在危害健康的違禁物質。
 
  This wave of"roll call"has directly unveiled the"health"label of electronic cigarettes affixed by major merchants,and has also brought the new industry down.In fact,even without the"roll call"of these mainstream media and organizations,the electronic cigarette industry itself is in a chaotic situation and will usher in a wave of rectification.At present,the price of electronic cigarette products on the market varies from more than a dozen yuan to over a thousand yuan,without any purchase restrictions,even teenagers can easily get it.However,for this new product without clear regulation,it is difficult for consumers to distinguish the true from the false,to know what the manufacturer actually added to it,and whether there are prohibited substances harmful to health.
 
  電子煙監管處于真空地帶科學儀器敲響安全警鐘
 
  Electronic smoke supervision in vacuum zone sounds safety alarm by scientific instruments
 
  據悉,國內還沒有正式頒布電子煙的國家標準,可以說還存在較大的監管真空地帶。市面上各類產品質量參差不齊,很可能存在各類安全隱患,亟需科學儀器予以規范。
 
  It is reported that the national standards for electronic cigarettes have not yet been formally promulgated in China,so it can be said that there is still a large regulatory vacuum zone.The quality of all kinds of products on the market is uneven,and there may be various potential safety hazards.It is urgent to standardize scientific instruments.
 
  一般電子煙主要由盛放尼古丁溶液的煙管、蒸發裝置和電池三大部分組成。之所以會呈現如同真煙一般吞云吐霧的效果,就是因為電子煙將霧化器作為蒸發裝置,把液態的尼古丁轉化為霧氣。然而,問題的關鍵就出在尼古丁液體,也就是煙油上。此前普遍認為,電子煙的煙油不含危及健康的焦油、一氧化碳等物質,但是它依然含有尼古丁、甲醛等物質。要知道,一次性吸入過量尼古丁會危及性命,長期吸食會使人上癮,容易引起癌癥、高血壓、冠心病、肺氣腫等多種疾病。而甲醛不用多說,一直都是公認的致癌物。
 
  In general,electronic cigarette is mainly composed of smoke pipe,evaporation device and battery which hold nicotine solution.The reason for this effect is that the electronic smoke uses the atomizer as an evaporator to convert liquid nicotine into mist.However,the key to the problem lies in the nicotine liquid,that is,fume.Previously,it was generally believed that the smoke of electronic cigarette does not contain tar,carbon monoxide and other substances that endanger health,but it still contains nicotine,formaldehyde and other substances.You know,one-time inhalation of excessive nicotine can endanger life,long-term addiction can lead to cancer,hypertension,coronary heart disease,emphysema and other diseases.Formaldehyde,needless to say,has always been recognized as a carcinogen.
 
  采用氣相色譜儀、液質聯用儀或者氣質聯用儀等分析儀器,可以有效檢測煙油中所含的尼古丁含量。由于電子煙排放的尼古丁也會對環境造成污染,因此還需要測定吸食后空氣中的尼古丁濃度。憑借重現性好、檢測精度高、速度較快等優勢,高效液相色譜可以很好地用于這一項目的測定。此外,對于使用電子煙的人群,高效液相色譜也可以通過測定他們尿液、唾液和頭發中尼古丁的含量,判斷其受到電子煙的影響程度。
 
  Nicotine content in fume can be effectively detected by gas chromatography,liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Because nicotine emitted from electronic cigarettes can also pollute the environment,it is necessary to determine nicotine concentration in the air after smoking.With the advantages of good reproducibility,high detection accuracy and fast speed,high performance liquid chromatography can be well used for the determination of this item.In addition,for people who use electronic cigarettes,high performance liquid chromatography can also determine the extent of the impact of electronic cigarettes by measuring the content of nicotine in their urine,saliva and hair.
 
  那么,令人聞風喪膽的甲醛又應該如何檢測呢?滴定法、重量法、比色法、氣相色譜法和液相色譜法等定量分析方法較為適用。比如測定甲醛的經典方法就是比色法,可用紫外可見光吸收分光光度計測定,滿足分析極限、準確度和重現性方面的要求。近年來,氣相色譜、液相色譜等方法也廣泛應用于實際樣品中甲醛的測定,有著操作簡便、結果準確等優點。
 
  So,how should we detect the disgusting formaldehyde?Quantitative analysis methods such as titration,gravimetry,colorimetry,gas chromatography and liquid chromatography are more suitable.For example,the classical method for the determination of formaldehyde is colorimetry,which can be determined by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometer to meet the requirements of analysis limit,accuracy and reproducibility.In recent years,gas chromatography,liquid chromatography and other methods have been widely used in the determination of formaldehyde in practical samples,with the advantages of simple operation and accurate results.
 
  除了含有尼古丁、甲醛等有害物的煙油,電子煙中使用的棉芯也成為新的關注點。上文曾提到,市面上現存的電子煙產品存在細菌和真菌毒素污染等問題,其潛在污染源可能就是電子煙使用的棉芯等棉纖維物質。當使用者使用電子煙的時候,很有可能會接觸到這些污染物,吸入有害物質。因此,檢查電子煙產品質量也應該考慮這一問題。據已知資料,ATP生物發光法可以快速檢測菌落總數,以評價電子煙的衛生情況。
 
  In addition to smoke oil containing harmful substances such as nicotine and formaldehyde,the cotton core used in electronic cigarettes has also become a new concern.As mentioned above,the existing electronic cigarette products on the market are contaminated by bacteria and mycotoxins.The potential source of contamination may be cotton fibers such as cotton core used in electronic cigarettes.When users use electronic cigarettes,they are likely to be exposed to these pollutants and inhale harmful substances.Therefore,the quality of electronic cigarette products should also be considered.According to known data,ATP bioluminescence method can quickly detect the total number of bacterial colonies to evaluate the health status of electronic cigarettes.
 
  當然,電子煙存在的質量問題不止于此,霧化器損壞引起的漏油、干燒等現象較為普遍,煙油所含成分依然有待科學儀器進一步分析。至少,過去一句簡單的“不含焦油、一氧化碳,尼古丁不致癌”已經無法撐起消費者對電子煙的信任。站在健康和環保的角度,小編依然希望能有更多人加入到支持禁煙的行列中。建議從未吸過煙的朋友們,尤其是青少年群體,不要因為好奇或者跟風而去接觸電子煙。“老煙民”也別以為電子煙無害,要想健康還是早日戒煙吧。
 
  Of course,the quality problems of electronic smoke are not limited to this.Oil leakage and dry burning caused by atomizer damage are common.The composition of fume still needs further analysis by scientific instruments.At least,the simple phrase"No tar,no carbon monoxide,no carcinogenic nicotine"has failed to build consumer confidence in e-cigarettes.From the point of view of health and environmental protection,Xiaobian still hopes that more people will join in supporting the anti-smoking campaign.It is recommended that friends who have never smoked,especially teenagers,do not contact electronic cigarettes because they are curious or follow the trend."Old smokers"should not think that electronic cigarettes are harmless.If you want to be healthy,you should quit smoking as soon as possible.
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