【行業新聞】儀器儀表與遙感衛星組“CP” 多個領域大顯身手
信息來源: 華恒 | [ 2019-05-23 ] 點擊量: 339

   近幾來,全球遙感衛星發射的次數在不斷的增加。根據統計,2018年我國發射的遙感衛星已經達到了40顆,遠超過2017年發射的19顆。而衛星上攜帶的多種儀器儀表載荷成為了衛星的“眼鏡”和“耳朵”,延伸了衛星的功能,在多個領域發揮著重要的作用。

  In recent years,the number of global remote sensing satellite launches has been increasing.According to statistics,China has launched 40 remote sensing satellites in 2018,far more than 19 in 2017.The loads of various instruments and instruments carried on the satellite have become the"eyeglasses"and"ears"of the satellite,extending the functions of the satellite and playing an important role in many fields.
 
  衛星遙感是在遠離目標和非接觸目標物體條件下探測目標地物,獲取其反射、輻射或散射的電磁波信息,并進行提取、判定、加工處理、分析與應用的一門科學和技術,涉及到了觀測儀、光譜儀以及成像儀等多種儀器儀表。
  Satellite remote sensing is a science and technology that detects the target and ground objects far away from the target and non-contact objects,obtains the electromagnetic wave information reflected,radiated or scattered by them,and extracts,judges,processes,analyses and applies it.It involves many instruments such as observer,spectrometer and imager.
 
  目前,國內已經形成了氣象、海洋、高分、資源、環境等對地遙感觀測衛星系列,在土地資源調查、生態環境監測、農業監測與作物估產、災害預報與災情評估、海洋環境調查等方面發揮著重要的作用。
  At present,China has formed a series of remote sensing observation satellites for meteorology,ocean,high score,resources and environment,which play an important role in land resources investigation,ecological environment monitoring,agricultural monitoring and crop yield estimation,disaster prediction and disaster assessment,marine environment investigation and so on.
 
  其中,我國發射的用于環境減災兩顆衛星通過攜帶的光學和紅外傳感器,迅速準確的拍攝到澳大利亞火場的光學、紅外和雷達圖像,極大的幫助了澳大利亞的滅火行動;發射的用于監測大氣污染狀況的高分五號搭載了大氣主要溫室氣體監測儀、大氣痕量氣體差分吸收光譜儀、大氣氣溶膠多角度偏振探測儀、大氣環境紅外甚高光譜分辨率探測儀,從不同方面實現對大氣主要污染氣體、溫室氣體、云和氣溶膠等的綜合探測。
  Among them,the two satellites launched by China for environmental disaster mitigation can quickly and accurately capture the optical,infrared and radar images of the Australian fire field by carrying optical and infrared sensors,which greatly helps Australia's fire extinguishing operations;the high-score No.5 launched for monitoring air pollution is equipped with the main greenhouse gas monitor and differential absorption of atmospheric trace gases.Spectrometer,atmospheric aerosol Multi-angle Polarization detector,atmospheric environment infrared very high spectral resolution detector,from different aspects to achieve a comprehensive detection of major atmospheric pollutants,greenhouse gases,clouds and aerosols.
 
  在海洋觀測領域,我國發射的海洋一號C星攜帶了海洋水色水溫掃描儀、紫外成像儀、海岸帶成像儀、星上定標光譜儀和船舶自動識別監測系統五種儀器,海洋二號B衛星攜帶了雷達高度計、微波散射計、掃描微波輻射計、校正輻射計、數據收集系統和船舶自動識別系統6個有效載荷,來推動海洋環境的監測。
  In the field of ocean observation,Ocean-1C satellite launched by our country carries five instruments:ocean color water temperature scanner,ultraviolet imager,coastal zone imager,on-board calibration spectrometer and ship automatic identification monitoring system.Ocean-2B satellite carries radar altimeter,microwave scatterometer,scanning microwave radiometer,calibration radiometer,data collection system and ship automatic identification system.The system has six payloads to promote the monitoring of the marine environment.
 
  在地震機理研究、空間環境監測和地球系統科學研究等領域,我國發射了“張衡一號”衛星,搭載的載荷主要有電磁場有效載荷、電離層原位參數測量有效載荷、電離層結構層析成像載荷等3大類共8種儀器儀表,共同對空間環境進行監測。
  In the fields of earthquake mechanism research,space environment monitoring and earth system science research,China has launched Zhangheng-1 satellite.The main loads carried by Zhangheng-1 satellite are electromagnetic field payload,ionospheric in-situ parameter measurement payload,ionospheric structure tomography imaging payload and other three categories of 8 instruments,which jointly monitor the space environment.
 
  雖然目前,世界各地已經發射了多顆衛星,但是衛星發射還遠遠沒有進入到快速發展的階段。2015年我國的“吉林一號”項目中,計劃于2030年完成138顆衛星組網。2019年5月,SpaceX“星鏈計劃”(Satrlink)正式啟動,“星鏈計劃”由近1.2萬顆衛星組成,按照約定,SpaceX需在2024年之前成功發射6000顆衛星。未來,衛星的數量還會不斷增加。無論對國防安全還是經濟社會發展,衛星遙感的作用都不可小覷。
  Although many satellites have been launched around the world,satellite launches have not yet entered the stage of rapid development.In 2015,138 satellite networks are planned to be completed in 2030 in China's"Jilin 1"project.In May 2019,SpaceX Star Chain Program(Satrlink)was officially launched.The Star Chain Program consists of nearly 12,000 satellites.According to the agreement,SpaceX needs to successfully launch 6,000 satellites by 2024.In the future,the number of satellites will continue to increase.Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in national security and economic and social development.
 
  同時,采用快速、準確的實時觀測技術,獲得大范圍、長時間序列的數據始終是衛星發射的目標,而觀測技術的進步就取決于衛星上攜帶的儀器儀表。在衛星的不斷發射過程中,也在推動著儀器儀表技術的不斷升級。從被動的接受地物發射的自然光發展到接受地物發射的長波紅外輻射,并能利用合成孔徑雷達和激光雷達主動發射電磁波,實現全天候的對地觀測,儀器儀表的功能在不斷提升。此外,在性能上,儀器儀表也在不斷的提高。相比海洋一號A星、B星來說,海洋一號C星海岸帶成像儀的幅寬提升近2倍,分辨率提高了5倍,在軌壽命也從3年延長到5年,同時重量、體積、功耗等指標也得到了進一步優化。
  At the same time,using fast and accurate real-time observation technology to obtain large-scale and long time series data is always the target of satellite launching,and the progress of observation technology depends on the instruments carried on the satellite.In the process of satellite launching,it also promotes the upgrading of instrumentation technology.From passive acceptance of natural light emitted by ground objects to acceptance of long-wave infrared radiation emitted by ground objects,and active emission of electromagnetic waves by synthetic aperture radar and lidar,all-weather earth observation is realized,and the functions of instruments and instruments are constantly improving.In addition,in terms of performance,instrumentation is also constantly improving.Compared with Ocean 1 A and B satellites,the width and resolution of Ocean 1 C coastal zone imager have been increased by nearly two times,and the on-orbit life has been extended from three to five years.At the same time,the weight,volume and power consumption have been further optimized.
 
  隨著我國經濟的不斷發展,城市化進程的不斷加快,城市規劃建設、旅游服務、城市公共安全等的發展,遙感技術的應用領域還將繼續擴大。對于儀器儀表來說,也將與遙感衛星一起,發揮著更大的作用。
  With the continuous development of China's economy,the acceleration of urbanization,the development of urban planning and construction,tourism services and urban public safety,the application of remote sensing technology will continue to expand.For instruments and instruments,they will play a greater role together with remote sensing satellites.
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